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2015年湖北考研英语二真题及参考答案

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湖北2015年考研英语二真题及参考答案

  湖北考研网获悉,2015年湖北硕士研究生考试初试时间为2014年12月27日至12月28日。2015年湖北考研英语二真题及参考答案如下:
 
  Directions:
  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
  In our contemporary culture, the prospect of communicating with -- or even looking at -- a stranger is virtually unbearable. Everyone around us seems to agree by the way they fiddle with their phones, even without a 1 underground.
  It's a sad reality -- our desire to avoid interacting with other human beings -- because there's 2 to be gained from talking to the stranger standing by you. But you wouldn't know it, 3 into your phone. This universal armor sends the 4 : "Please don't approach me."
  What is it that makes us feel we need to hide 5 our screens?
  One answer is fear, according to Jon Wortmann, executive mental coach. We fear rejection, or that our innocent social advances will be 6 as "creepy,". We fear we'll be 7 . We fear we'll be disruptive. Strangers are inherently 8 to us, so we are more likely to feel 9 when communicating with them compared with our friends and acquaintances. To avoid this anxiety, we 10 to our phones. "Phones become our security blanket," Wortmann says. "They are our happy glasses that protect us from what we perceive is going to be more 11 .”
  But once we rip off the bandaid, tuck our smartphones in our pockets and look up, it doesn't 12 so bad. In one 2011 experiment, behavioral scientists Nicholas Epley and Juliana Schroeder asked commuters to do the unthinkable: Start a 13 . They had Chicago train commuters talk to their fellow 14 . "When Dr. Epley and Ms. Schroeder asked other people in the same train station to 15 how they would feel after talking to a stranger, the commuters thought their 16 would be more pleasant if they sat on their own," the New York Times summarizes. Though the participants didn't expect a positive experience, after they 17 with the experiment, "not a single person reported having been snubbed."
  18 , these commutes were reportedly more enjoyable compared with those sans communication, which makes absolute sense, 19 human beings thrive off of social connections. It's that 20 : Talking to strangers can make you feel connected.
  1. [A] ticket [B] permit [C] signal [D] record
  2. [A] nothing [B] link [C] another [D] much
  3. [A] beaten [B] guided [C] plugged [D] brought
  4. [A] message [B] cede [C] notice [D] sign
  5. [A] under [B] beyond [C] behind [D] from
  6. [A] misinterpret [B] misapplied [C] misadjusted [D] mismatched
  7. [A] fired [B] judged [C] replaced [D] delayed
  8. [A] unreasonable [B] ungrateful [C] unconventional [D] unfamiliar
  9. [A] comfortable [B] anxious [C] confident [D] angry
  10. [A] attend [B] point [C] take [D] turn
  11. [A] dangerous [B] mysterious [C] violent [D] boring
  12. [A] hurt [B] resist [C] bend [D] decay
  13. [A] lecture [B] conversation [C] debate [D] negotiation
  14. [A] trainees [B] employees [C] researchers [D] passengers
  15. [A] reveal [B] choose [C] predict [D] design
  16. [A] voyage [B] flight [C] walk [D] ride
  17. [A] went through [B] did away [C] caught up [D] put up
  18. [A] In turn [B] In particular [C] In fact [D] In consequence
  19. [A] unless [B] since [C] if [D] whereas
  20. [A] funny [B] simple [C] logical [D] rare
  Section II Reading Comprehension
  Part A
  Directions:
  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
  Text 1
  A new study suggests that contrary to most surveys, people are actually more stressed at home than at work. Researchers measured people’s cortisol, which is a stress marker, while they were at work and while they were at home and found it higher at what is supposed to be a place of refuge.
  “Further contradicting conventional wisdom, we found that women as well as men have lower levels of stress at work than at home, ” writes one of the researchers, Sarah Damske. In fact women even say they feel better at work, she notes.“ It is men, not women, who report being happier at home than at work. ”Another surprise is that findings hold true for both those with children and without, but more so for nonparents. This is why people who work outside the home have better health.
  What the study doesn’t measure is whether people are still doing work when they’re at home, whether it is household work or work brought home from the office. For many men, the end of the workday is a time to kick back. For women who stay home, they never get to leave the office. And for women who work outside the home, they often are playing catch-up-with-household tasks. With the blurring of roles, and the fact that the home front lags well behind the workplace a making adjustments for working women, it’s not surprising that women are more stressed at home.
  But it’s not just a gender thing. At work, people pretty much know what they’re supposed to be doing: working, marking money, doing the tasks they have to do in order to draw an income. The bargain is very pure: Employee puts in hours of physical or mental labor and employee draws out life-sustaining moola.
  On the home front, however, people have no such clarity. Rare is the household in which the division of labor is so clinically and methodically laid out. There are a lot of tasks to be done, there are inadequate rewards for most of them. Your home colleagues-your family-have no clear rewards for their labor; they need to be talked into it, or if they’re teenagers, threatened with complete removal of all electronic devices. Plus, they’re your family. You cannot fire your family. You never really get to go home from home.
  So it’s not surprising that people are more stressed at home. Not only are the tasks apparently infinite, the co-workers are much harder to motivate.
  21.According to Paragraph 1,most previous surveys found that home_____
  [A] offered greater relaxation than the workplace
  [B] was an ideal place for stress measurement
  [C] generated more stress than the workplace
  [D] was an unrealistic place for relaxation
  22. According to Damaske, who are likely to be the happiest at home?
  [A] Childless wives
  [B] Working mothers
  [C] Childless husbands
  [D] Working fathers
  23.The blurring of working women's roles refers to the fact that_____
  [A] it is difficult for them to leave their office
  [B] their home is also a place for kicking back
  [C] there is often much housework left behind
  [D] they are both bread winners and housewives
  24.The word“moola”(Line4,Para4)most probably means_____
  [A] skills
  [B] energy
  [C] earnings
  [D] nutrition
  25.The home front differs from the workplace in that_____
  [A] division of labor at home is seldom clear-cut
  [B] home is hardly a cozier working environment
  [C] household tasks are generally more motivating
  [D] family labor is often adequately rewarded
  Text 2
  For years, studies have found that first-generation college students- those who do not have a parent with a college degree- lag other students on a range of education achievement factors. Their grades are lower and their dropout rates are higher. But since such students are most likely to advance economically if they succeed in higher education, colleges and universities have pushed for decades to recruit more of them. This has created “a paradox” in that recruiting first- generation students, but then watching many of them fail, means that higher education has “continued to reproduce and widen, rather than close” ab achievement gap based on social class, according to the depressing beginning of a paper forthcoming in the journal Psychological Science.
  But the article is actually quite optimistic, as it outlines a potential solution to this problem, suggesting that an approach (which involves a one-hour, next-to-no-cost program) can close 63 percent of the achievement gap (measured by such factors as grades) between first-generation and other students.
  The authors of the paper are from different universities, and their findings are based on a study involving 147 students ( who completed the project) at an unnamed private university. First generation was defined as not having a parent with a four-year college degree. Most of the first-generation students(59.1 percent) were recipients of Pell Grants, a federal grant for undergraduates with financial need, while this was true only for 8.6 percent of the students wit at least one parent with a four-year degree.
  Their thesis- that a relatively modest intervention could have a big impact- was based on the view that first-generation students may be most lacking not in potential but in practical knowledge about how to deal with the issues that face most college students. They cite past research by several authors to show that this is the gap that must be narrowed to close the achievement gap.
  Many first- generation students “struggle to navigate the middle-class culture of higher education, learn the ‘rules of the game,’ and take advantage of college resources,” they write. And this becomes more of a problem when collages don’t talk about the class advantage and disadvantages of different groups of students. Because US colleges and universities seldom acknowledge how social class can affect students ’educational experience, many first-generation students lack sight about why they are struggling and do not understand how students’ like them can improve.
  26. Recruiting more first- generation students has_______
  [A] reduced their dropout rates
  [B] narrowed the achievement gap
  [C] missed its original purpose
  [D] depressed college students
  27. The author of the research article are optimistic because_______
  [A] the problem is solvable
  [B] their approach is costless
  [C] the recruiting rate has increased
  [D] their finding appeal to students
  28. The study suggests that most first- generation students______
  [A] study at private universities
  [B] are from single-parent families
  [C] are in need of financial support
  [D] have failed their collage
  29. The author of the paper believe that first-generation students_______
  [A] are actually indifferent to the achievement gap
  [B] can have a potential influence on other students
  [C] may lack opportunities to apply for research projects
  [D] are inexperienced in handling their issues at college
  30. We may infer from the last paragraph that_______
  [A] universities often reject the culture of the middle-class
  [B] students are usually to blame for their lack of resources
  [C] social class greatly helps enrich educational experiences
  [D]colleges are partly responsible for the problem in question
  Text 3
  Even in traditional offices, “the lingua franca of corporate America has gotten much more emotional and much more right-brained than it was 20 years ago,” said Harvard Business School professor Nancy Koehn. She started spinning off examples. “If you and I parachuted back to Fortune 500 companies in 1990, we would see much less frequent use of terms like journey, mission, passion. There were goals, there were strategies, there were objectives, but we didn’t talk about energy; we didn’t talk about passion.”
  Koehn pointed out that this new era of corporate vocabulary is very “team”-oriented—and not by coincidence. “Let’s not forget sports—in male-dominated corporate America, it’s still a big deal. It’s not explicitly conscious; it’s the idea that I’m a coach, and you’re my team, and we’re in this together. There are lots and lots of CEOs in very different companies, but most think of themselves as coaches and this is their team and they want to win.”
  These terms are also intended to infuse work with meaning—and, as Khurana points out, increase allegiance to the firm. “You have the importation of terminology that historically used to be associated with non-profit organizations and religious organizations: Terms like vision, values, passion, and purpose,” said Khurana.
  This new focus on personal fulfillment can help keep employees motivated amid increasingly loud debates over work-life balance. The “mommy wars” of the 1990s are still going on today, prompting arguments about why women still can’t have it all and books like Sheryl Sandberg’s Lean In, whose title has become a buzzword in its own right. Terms like unplug, offline, life-hack, bandwidth, and capacity are all about setting boundaries between the office and the home. But if your work is your “passion,” you’ll be more likely to devote yourself to it, even if that means going home for dinner and then working long after the kids are in bed.
  But this seems to be the irony of office speak: Everyone makes fun of it, but managers love it, companies depend on it, and regular people willingly absorb it. As Nunberg said, “You can get people to think it’s nonsense at the same time that you buy into it.” In a workplace that’s fundamentally indifferent to your life and its meaning, office speak can help you figure out how you relate to your work—and how your work defines who you are.
  31. According to Nancy Koehn, office language has become_____
  [A] more emotional
  [B] more objective
  [C] less energetic
  [D] less strategic
  32. “Team”-oriented corporate vocabulary is closely related to_______
  [A] historical incidents
  [B] gender difference
  [C] sports culture
  [D] athletic executives
  33.Khurana believes that the importation of terminology aims to______
  [A] revive historical terms
  [B] promote company image
  [C] foster corporate cooperation
  [D] strengthen employee loyalty
  34.It can be inferred that Lean In________
  [A] voices for working women
  [B] appeals to passionate workaholics
  [C] triggers debates among mommies
  [D] praises motivated employees
  35.Which of the following statements is true about office speak?
  [A] Managers admire it but avoid it
  [B] Linguists believe it to be nonsense
  [C] Companies find it to be fundamental
  [D] Regular people mock it but accept it
  Text 4
  Many people talked of the 288,000 new jobs the Labor Department reported for June, along with the drop in the unemployment rate to 6.1 percent, as good news. And they were right. For now it appears the economy is creating jobs at a decent pace. We still have a long way to go to get back to full employment, but at least we are now finally moving forward at a faster pace.
  However, there is another important part of the jobs picture that was largely overlooked. There was a big jump in the number of people who repot voluntarily working part-time. This figure is now 830,000(4.4 percent)above its year ago level.
  Before explaining the connection to the Obamacare, it is worth making an important distinction. Many people who work part-time jobs actually want full-time jobs. They take part-time work because this is all they can get. An increase in involuntary part-time work is evidence of weakness in the labor market and it means that many people will be having a very hard time making ends meet.
  There was an increase in involuntary part-time in June, but the general direction has been down. Involuntary part-time employment is still far higher than before the recession, but it is down by 640,000(7.9percent)from is year ago level.
  We know the difference between voluntary and involuntary part-time employment because people tell us. The survey used by the Labor Department asks people is they worked less than 35 hours in the reference week. If the answer is “yes”, they are classified as worked less than 35hours in that week because they wanted to work less than full time or because they had no choice .They are only classified as voluntary part-time workers if they tell the survey taker they chose to work less than 35 hours a week.
  The issue of voluntary part-time relates to Obamacare because one of the main purposes was to allow people to get insurance outside of employment. For many people , especially those with serious health conditions or family members with serious health conditions ,before Obamacare the only way to get insurance was through a job that provided health insurance.
  However, Obamacare has allowed more than 12 million people to either get insurance through Medicaid or the exchanges. These are people who may previously have felt the need to get a full-time job that provided insurance in order to cover themselves and their families. With Obamacare there is no longer a link between employment and insurance.
  36. Which part of the jobs picture are neglected?
  [A] The prospect of a thriving job market.
  [B] The increase of voluntary part-time market.
  [C] The possibility of full employment.
  [D] The acceleration of job creation.
  37. Many people work part-time because they_____.
  [A] prefer part-time jobs to full-time jobs.
  [B] feel that is enough to make ends meet.
  [C] cannot get their hands on full-time jobs.
  [D] haven’t seen the weakness of the market.
  38. Involuntary part-time employment is the US_____.
  [A] is harder to acquire than one year ago.
  [B] shows a general tendency of decline.
  [C] satisfies the real need of the jobless.
  [D] is lower than before the recession.
  39. It can be learned that with Obamacare,_____.
  [A] it is no longer easy for part-timers to get insurance
  [B] employment is no longer a precondition to get insurance
  [C] it is still challenging to get insurance for family members
  [D] full-time employment is still essential for insurance
  40. The text mainly discusses_______.
  [A] employment in the US
  [B] part-timer classification
  [C] insurance though Medicaid
  [D] Obamacare’s trouble
  Part B
  Directions:
  In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list [A]-[G] to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
  [A] You are not alone
  [B] Don’t fear responsibility for your life
  [C] Pave your own unique path
  [D] Most of your fears are unreal
  [E] Think about the present moment
  [F] Experience helps you grow
  [G] There are many things to be grateful for
  Unfortunately, life is not a bed of roses. We are going through life facing sad experiences. Moreover, we are grieving various kinds of loss: a friendship, a romantic relationship or a house. Hard times may hold you down at what usually seems like the most inopportune time, but you should remember that they won’t last forever.
  When our time of mourning is over, we press forward, stronger with a greater understanding and respect for life. Furthermore, these losses make us mature and eventually move us toward future opportunities for growth and happiness. I want to share these ten old truths I’ve learned along the way.
  41._____________________________
  Fear is both useful and harmful. This normal human reaction is used to protect us by signaling danger and preparing us to deal with it. Unfortunately, people create inner barriers with a help of exaggerating fears. My favorite actor Will Smith once said, “Fear is not real. It is a product of thoughts you create. Do not misunderstand me. Danger is very real. But fear is a choice.” I do completely agree that fears are just the product of our luxuriant imagination.
  42_____________________________
  If you are surrounded by problems and cannot stop thinking about the past, try to focus on the present moment. Many of us are weighed down by the past or anxious about the future. You may feel guilt over your past, but you are poisoning the present with the things and circumstances you cannot change. Value the present moment and remember how fortunate you are to be alive. Enjoy the beauty of the world around and keep the eyes open to see the possibilities before you. Happiness is not a point of future and not a moment from the past, but a mindset that can be designed into the present.
  43______________________________
  Sometimes it is easy to feel bad because you are going through tough times. You can be easily caught up by life problems that you forget to pause and appreciate the things you have. Only strong people prefer to smile and value their life instead of crying and complaining about something.
  44________________________________
  No matter how isolated you might feel and how serious the situation is, you should always remember that you are not alone. Try to keep in mind that almost everyone respects and wants to help you if you are trying to make a good change in your life, especially your dearest and nearest people. You may have a circle of friends who provide constant good humor, help and companionship. If you have no friends or relatives, try to participate in several online communities, full of people who are always willing to share advice and encouragement.
  45________________________________
  Today many people find it difficult to trust their own opinion and seek balance by gaining objectivity from external sources. This way you devalue your opinion and show that you are incapable of managing your own life. When you are struggling to achieve something important you should believe in yourself and be sure that your decision is the best. You live in your skin, think your own thoughts, have your own values and make your own choices.
  Section III Translation
  Directions:
  Translate the following text from English into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)
  Think about driving a route that’s very familiar. It could be your commute to work, a trip into town or the way home. Whichever it is, you know every twist and turn like the back of your hand. On these sorts of trips it’s easy to zone out from the actual driving and pay little attention to the passing scenery. The consequence is that you perceive that the trip has taken less time than it actually has.
  This is the well-travelled road effect: people tend to underestimate the time it takes to travel a familiar route.
  The effect is caused by the way we allocate our attention. When we travel down a well-known route, because we don’t have to concentrate much, time seems to flow more quickly. And afterwards, when we come to think back on it, we can’t remember the journey well because we didn’t pay much attention to it. So we assume it was shorter.
  Section IV Writing
  Part A
  47. Directions:
  Suppose your university is going to host a summer camp for high school students. Write a notice to
  1) briefly introduce the camp activities, and
  2) call for volunteers.
  You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.
  Do not use your name or the name of your university.
  Do not write your address. (10 points)
  Part B
  48. Directions:
  Write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, you should
  1) interpret the chart, and
  2) give your comments.
  You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

  参考答案:

  1、【答案】[C] signal
  【解析】此题所在的上下文内容的意思是:陌生人之间没有交流,大家都只关注自己的手机,甚至不_______。A项“票”,B项“允许”,C项“信号,打招呼”,D项“记录”;选项中,只有C项符合上下文语义,因此signal正确。
  2、【答案】[D] much
  【解析】第二个空格所在句子的语义内容是:我们避免和其他人交流是件很悲哀的是,原因在与和陌生人交流,我们会收获_______。根据句子内容,显然是指和陌生人交流,我们会从中收获很多东西。A.B.C.三个选项均不符合句意。因此答案选much.
  3、【答案】[C] plugged
  【解析】该题所在语境的意思是:不知道和陌生人交流,我们会从中收获很多东西吗,原因在于____我们的手机。A.打;B.引导;C.插入,投入;D.带来;四个选项分别带入句中,可以判断出plugged符合句意。
  4、【答案】[A] message
  【解析】该题所在句子的意思是:这种普遍存在的盔甲(不和陌生人交流)传递了“不要靠近我”这个________。显然这里考察了动宾搭配的考点,而且空格处的内容是说“不要靠近我”。所以,根据send这个动词和空格处后面的内容可以判断出,答案为message。其他选项均不符合前后语义。
  5、【答案】[C] behind
  【解析】该所要表达的意思是:…藏在我们屏幕的_______位置。A.下面;B.之外; C.后面;D. 来自;四个选项分别带入原句,只有behind符合句意。
  6、【答案】[D] misinterpreted
  【解析】空的语境为:我们害怕被拒绝,也害怕我们善意的社交之举被____成“怪异的”,只有答案D符合上下文语义。
  7、【答案】[D] delayed
  【解析】空格所在句与前后句同为we fear…的并列句,故句意应前后保持一致。前一句说“我们害怕被拒绝,被误解”,后一句说“我们害怕被打扰”,A选项带入语义不通,B,C选项不符合该文语境,D选项带入文中“我们害怕被耽搁时间”,符合上下文语义,故答案为D。
  8、【答案】[D] unfamiliar
  【解析】空格处需填入一个形容词修饰strangers(陌生人),所以该词应符合陌生人的身份与特点,既是陌生人,肯定是“不熟悉的”,故答案为D。
  9、【答案】[C] anxious
  【解析】空所在语境为“因为陌生人固有的陌生感,所以当与朋友和熟人相比,在沟通时,我们很容易感到_____。”填入的词应满足前后句的因果逻辑关系,不难判断空格处应填入一个消极的词汇,故首先排除A和B选项,D选项“生气的”和C选项“紧张的,焦虑的”,根据常识,D选项更符合陌生人所带来的感觉,故答案为C。
  10、【答案】[D] turn (to)
  【解析】空格要求填入一个动词,首先需与介词to构成搭配,其次需满足 “为了避免这种不自在,我们____我们的手机。”的语义,D选项turn to表示转向求助于某物某事,符合上下文语义,故答案为D。
  11、【答案】[A] dangerous
  【解析】根据此处结构protect us from what we perceive is going to be more _______(保护我们以防我们观察的东西更加_______),可推断空处填入词汇为负向感情色彩,A选项dangerous(危险的)意思吻合,且和前文uneasiness(不安);security(安全)形成呼应;B选项mysterious(神秘的)与主题关联不大,且为中性词;C选项violent(暴力的)意思比较极端,且不合题意;D选项boring(无聊的)同样不吻合该段主题。故答案为A选项dangerous。
  12、【答案】[A] hurt
  【解析】该句意思为:当我们撕掉创可贴,把智能手机揣到口袋里,并且抬头行走,并没有_______那么糟糕。A选项hurt(伤害)、B选项resist(抵抗)、C选项bend(弯曲)、D选项decay(衰退),其中hurt符合题意,it doesn’t hurt so bad(没那么令人难受)。因此答案为A选项hurt。
  13、【答案】[B] conversation
  【解析】由上文推断此处为研究者进行的一项实验内容,根据该句后面一句中talk to可知,实验是让研究对象进行交谈,可锁定B选项conversation(对话),与talk to对应。A选项lecture(讲座)、C选项debate(讨论)、D选项negotiation(谈判)均不吻合题意,故答案为B选项conversation。
  14、【答案】[D] passengers
  【解析】该句意思为:他们让芝加哥火车上的通勤者和他们的_______交谈。根据commuter(通勤者)一词可找到与之对应的A选项passengers(乘客),B选项employees(雇员)、C选项researchers(研究者)、D选项trainees(受训者)都不正确。故答案为A选项passengers。
  15、【答案】[C] predict
  【解析】该句意思为:“当两位博士让火车站的其他人_______和其他陌生人交谈会有什么感觉,乘客们认为……”。A选项reveal(揭露;曝光),多接负面现象,此处不搭配;B选项choose(选择)不合题意;C选项predict(预测)代入文中翻译通顺,文法符合;D选项design(设计)不合题意。故答案为C选项predict。
  16、【答案】[B] ride
  【解析】此处需要填入一个与commuters“上下班往返的人”相关的词。因此排除A选项voyage“旅途”和D选项flight“航班”。上文提到了“the same train station”, 因此排除C选项walk“步行”,选项B为正确答案。
  17、【答案】[A] went through
  【解析】此处考察固定词组。 A选项go through with意为“完成”,B选项“do away with”意为“废除,消灭”,C选项“catch up with”意为“跟上,赶上”,D选项put up with 意为“忍受”,因此符合文意,能够和实验搭配的只能是选项A。
  18、【答案】[B] In fact
  【解析】此处需要填入一个固定词组,起到承接上下文的作用。上文提到那些放下手机,积极与乘客交流的人并没有受到冷落。空格后指出,与那些没有对话的人相比,这些人更加的开心。可见上下文之间是并列或递进的关系。A 选项In turn意为“轮流,以此”,不符合上下文关系,C选项In particular“尤其是,特别是”常常用来表示举例的逻辑关系,因此排除。D选项In consequence“结果”,表示因果的逻辑关系,因此排除。所以正确答案为B选项in fact“事实上”。
  19、【答案】[B] since
  【解析】此处考察上下文的逻辑关系。上文指出,与那些没有对话的人相比,那些积极交谈的人更加开心。下文则提到人类的繁荣起源于社会联系。显然,这二者之间不是假设关系,因此排除A选项unless和C选项if,也非转折关系,因此排除D选项whereas,正确答案为B选项since,表因果关系。
  20、【答案】[C] simple
  【解析】此处需要填入一个可以形容冒号后句子的形容词。与陌生人交谈让你觉得不孤单。显然这一事实,绝非funny“滑稽的”, logical “有条理的”,也非rare“稀有的”。 C选项“简单的”符合文意,是正确答案。
  Section II Reading Comprehension
  Part A
  Text 1
  21、【答案】[A] offered greater relaxation than the workplace
  【解析】事实细节题。该题干问:之前的研究认为家是……。根据题干,该题答案定位在首段首句。首句大致意思为“一项新的研究表明,与绝大部分研究相反,实际上,人们在家里的压力要大于工作。”由此可知,以往的研究正好跟最新研究相反,即人们在家里的压力小于工作。纵观各选项,选项A意为:与工作场所相比,能提供更多的休闲;与文章表述一致,为正确答案。
  22、【答案】[C ] childless husbands
  【解析】事实细节题。文章第二段第三句和第四句提到“It is men not women, who report being happier at home than at work…, but more so for nonparents.”即“研究发现是男人,而不是女人,在家比在工作中更高兴。更令人吃惊的是,研究发现,这种情况对于有孩子和没有孩子都是这样,尤其是对于没有孩子的。”所以综合对比后,选择C。
  23、【答案】[D] they are both bread winners and housewives
  【解析】推理判断题。文章第三段中提到“For many men, the end of the workday is …, with the blurring of role……”. 意思是“对于男人来说,一天的工作结束后,是他们休息的时候,但是对于女人来说,离开办公室之后,还有很多的家务活”。由此可以推出,“The blurring of working women’s roles” 指的是“既要在职场打拼也要做很多家务的女性”。所以综合判定后确定D为正确答案。
  24、【答案】[C] earnings
  【解析】词义句意题。文章第四段第一句提出“在工作中,大家都知道挣钱,他们做工作就是为了家庭收入”。紧接着第二句给出“这些雇员付出体力和脑力的劳动,就是为了得到能够维持他们生活的必须收入”。结合上下文,moola应该对应原文中的“income”,表示他们挣得的收入。故C正确。
  25、【答案】[A] division of labor at home is seldom clear-cut
  【解析】事实细节题。根据题干关键词“The home front”可以回文定位在原文最后一段。最后一段第一句指出“然而,人们对于大后方(家庭)就没有那么清楚了”,接下来的一句进一步指出“Rare is the household in which the division of labor is so clinically…”(家务活的分工很少清清楚楚),A项中的“seldom”同意置换原文中的“Rare”, “clear-cut”同意置换原文的“clinically”,故A项正确。
  Text 2
  26、【答案】[D] missed its original purpose
  【解析】根据题干关键词recruiting more first-generation students回文定位到第一段的第四句,然后一一比对选项,“rather than close an achievement gap based on social class”排除选项B,选项A和C是无关选项,由第四句话中This has created “a paradox” in that recruiting first-generation students…与选项D “missed its original purpose”是同义替换,paradox的意思是“自相矛盾,似是而非的观点”,所以正确答案为D。
  27、【答案】[C] the problem is solvable
  【解析】根据题干信息“research article are optimistic because……”可以回文定位到文章第二段第一句“But the article is actually quite optimistic, as it outlines a potential solution to this problem”。As引导的原因状语从句是题干答案,跟C选“the problem is solvable”重合,因此选C。
  28、【答案】[C] are in need of financial support
  【解析】根据题干信息most first-generation students...定位第三段最后一句中,“most of first-generation students were recipients of Pell Grants(佩尔奖学金),a federal grant for undergraduates with financial need",可知答案为C,其中in need of和with...need对应,financial support 和financial相对应。
  29、【答案】[D] are inexperienced in handling their issues at college
  【解析】根据题干关键词the author of the paper回文定位到文章第四段第一句“their thesis ...that face most college students”。这句话中明确说到第一代学生缺乏处理一些问题的实际经验,与选项D语义相符,其中are inexperienced与原文的lacking in practical knowledge对应,handling their issues与how to deal with the issues对应,at college与that face most college students对应。
  30、【答案】[B] colleges are partly responsible for the problem in question
  【解析】根据题干关键词infer from the last paragraph回文定位到文章最后一段,这是一个段落推理题,可以通过寻找段落中心的方式来解。最后一段第一句和第二句是并列关系,均提出第一代学生中存在的与社会阶层有关的问题。第三句以一个because所引导的原因状语从句点明中心,明确该问题的来源是美国高校未承认社会阶层对学生教育经历的影响,因此总结出来可知,选项B正确,说明出现了相应问题,高校应该担负一部分责任。
  Text 3
  31、【答案】[A]more emotional
  【解析】细节题。题干中的office language对应文章中的lingua franca of corporate(公司通用语),题干中的has become对应文章中的has gotten,所以答案对应文章中的more emotional and much more right-brained。所以答案A more emotional。本题的易错答案是 more objective。文章中的objectives是名词“目标,话题”的意思。
  32、【答案】[C] sports culture
  【解析】细节题。本题的答案可以从第二段的第二句到第四句中得出。这几句话都是在举例子,作为论据出现来论证第一句话。第二句话中出现了sports,第三句话中出现了coach和team,第四句话中出现了coach和team,win,所有的这些词都与运动相关,所以答案选C sports culture。
  33、【答案】[D] strengthen employee loyalty
  【解析】细节题。本题题干中还出现了believe这一观点动词,根据题干中的importation of terminology可以定位到第三段的第二句话,但是这句话属于论据,其论点是第一句话。本句中出现are intended to表示目的,对应题干中的aims to,句子出现了increase allegiance to the firm,对应D strengthen employee loyalty,表示“加强员工的忠诚度”。
  34、【答案】[A] voices for working women
  【解析】推理题。根据题干中的Lean In可以定位到第四段的第二句话。这句话中出现了1990s和“mommy wars”也是明显的论据,所以推理的核心论点是前面的第一句话。第一句话中出现了work-life balance,第二句话中出现了mommy wars,结合二者可以推理出这句话谈论的是工作中对于女性的不公平。所以答案选voices for working women(为职业女性申辩)。
  35、【答案】[D] regular people mock it but accept it
  【解析】细节题。根据题干的关键词可以定位到最后一段的第一句话。要注意这句话的结构。本句是一个转折句,尽管大家取笑office speak,但是…。转折之后表示的是人们对它的认可,A Managers …avoid it态度与文章不符。B中的linguists 在文章中没有提到。C中的Companies find it to fundamental,属于推理过度,文章说的是depend on,依靠并不说明fundamental根本的。
  Text 4
  36、【答案】[B] the increase of part-time jobs
  【解析】本题为细节题。根据关键词“job pictures, neglected”可以回文定位到第二段第一句话“the jobs picture ...was largely overlooked”,其中neglected是overlooked的同义替换。并且此句有明显的命题点“however”。第二句具体指出被忽略的部分是“there was a big jump in the number of people who report voluntarily working part-time.”,即有大量的人自愿从事兼职工作。故正确答案为B。其中increase是原文jump的同义替换,voluntary part-time jobs是voluntarily working part-time的同义转述。
  37、【答案】[C] cannot get their hands on full-time jobs
  【解析】根据题干中的关键词“many people work part-time”可以定位到第二段第五句话“many people who work part-time jobs actually want full-time jobs”。由此句可知,那些从事兼职工作的人实际想拥有全日制工作。接着第六句明确指出他们从事兼职工作的原因:they take part-time because this is all they can get。言外之意是说,人们目前只能得到兼职工作,而无法获得全职工作。故正确答案为C。
  38、【答案】[B] shows a general tendency of decline
  【解析】通过题干中的involuntary part-time employment可以将该题定位在文章第二段。该段倒数第二句表明“这种非自愿参加兼职工作在六月份是呈现增长的,但是总趋势是下降的”。故B选项(呈现出一种普遍下降的趋势)正确。
  39、【答案】[B] employment is no longer a precondition to get insurance
  【解析】通过题干中with Obamacare可以将该题定位在全文最后一句。该句表明,就业和保险之间不再有关联。而从上一句可以看出,之前很多人想要找一份提供保险的全职工作来养活自己和家人。可见,之前,就业就意味着能得到保险。而它们之间的关系不复存在,即雇佣不再是得到保险的前提条件。可见,B选项正确。
  40、【答案】[A] employment in the US
  【解析】该题考察的是文章主旨大意。文章首段指出目前的失业率呈现出下降的趋势,而接下来的第二段提出在这种失业率下降的好现象中,我们忽略了那些自愿(voluntary)参加兼职工作的人。第三段就自愿兼职工作者和非自愿兼职工作者的区别展开描述。最后两段表明,那些自愿参加兼职工作的人是因为有了一项名为Obamacare的政策,该政策旨在使那些没有全职工作的人也有可能获得保险,从而提升就业率。可见,全文都是围绕美国的就业形势展开讨论。故A选项正确。
  Part B
  41、【答案】[D] Most of your fears are unreal
  【解析】本段中出现了多次词义复现,如Fear is not real以及fears are just the product of our luxuriant imagination(恐惧只是丰富想象的产物)。Unfortunately转折后作者通过引用Will Smith的话以及自己的总结强调揭示了段落主题。
  42、【答案】[E] Think about the present moment
  【解析】该题所在段落平铺直叙,因此第一句话为段落中心句,其中关键信息是focus on the present moment,与选项E主题词复现。下文中又多次复现了主题词,如value the present moment,moment以及present。
  43、【答案】[G] There are many things to be grateful for
  【解析】该题的解题线索是主题词复现。段落中的appreciate,smile,value与grateful属于近义复现,cry和complain与grateful是反义复现。
  44、【答案】[A] You are not alone
  【解析】段落首句出现了表达强烈语气的情态动词should,因此主题句为首句,关键信息为you are not alone,与A选项匹配。
  45、【答案】[C] Pave your own unique path
  【解析】该段落主题句为“When you…you should believe in yourself and be sure that your decision is the best.”作者正面提出了自己的观点“相信自己以及自己的决定是最佳的”。下文进一步阐释,其中own thoughts, own values 以及own choices构成了标题中的own unique path。
  Section III Translation
  46、【参考译文】
  想象行驶在一条非常熟悉的路线上。它可能是你通勤上班的路,可能是你赴城或回家的路。不管是哪条路线,你熟知每个转弯,就像熟知你的手背。在这样的旅程中,很容易忽视实际的行驶过程,不关注路过的风景。结果,你感觉行驶的时间比实际的时间要少。
  这是熟悉路线效应:人们常常低估行驶熟悉路线所用的时间。
  这种效应是由我们分配注意力的方式引起的。当我们行驶在熟悉的线路中,因为我们不必聚精会神,时间似乎流逝得更快些。之后,当我们回想起这段旅程,我们不能清楚地忆起它,因为我们并未留意过它。因此,我们认为这段旅程的时间相对较短。
  Section IV Writing
  47、
  【参考范文】
  NOTICE
  June 8, 2014
  Since our university is going to organize a camp for high school students during this summer vocation, the Postgraduate Association is now recruiting volunteers to make the camp a complete success.
  As a cultural exchange program, this camp starting from July 17 to August 17 aims to promote the understanding of American culture among high school students. Students will visit a high school in Texas and exchange ideas with students there. After that, they will have a tour to major American universities and famous tourist spots. Those who would like to volunteer for this activity must possess fluent communication skills in English. All the transportation and accommodation expenses are covered.
  Anyone who is interested in international communication is encouraged to apply. The applicants may download the application form from the university website and send the form to 1234567@hotmail.com.
  Postgraduates’ Association
  48、
  【参考范文】
  Emerging from the pie char given above is the proportions of residents’ different consumptions during Spring Festival in a Chinese city. To be specific, the percentage of consumption taken by New Year’s present accounts for 40%, ranking first. Meanwhile, that of gatherings and traffic ranks second, making up 20% respectively.
  The bar chart reveals the fact that money spent on New Year’s present occupies the largest percentage of the consumption. What exactly contributes to this phenomenon? Reasons can be listed as follows: To begin with, it is universally acknowledged that China is renowned for valuing politeness and ceremonies ever since ancient times. Therefore sending New Year’s present mutually is a symbol of inheriting Chinese civilization and virtue, especially during the traditional festivals. In addition, with the improvement of financial status and corresponding purchasing power, people in mounting numbers can afford the once-deemed-expensive gifts to convey their warmest wishes and sincerest greetings.
  By observing the different proportion of the pie chart, we may forecast that this situation will continue in the near future, which is beneficial to promote interpersonal communication and the social harmony as well and should be further encouraged.


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