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大学英语语法(三)

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 不定式作宾语

  1) 动词+ 不定式  afford  aim   appear  agree  arrange  ask   be    decide bother  care  choose   come    dare   demand desire  determine     expect   elect  endeavor     hope       fail  happen  help  hesitate learn  long   mean   manage  offer  ought   plan  prepare pretend   promise refuse seem   tend   wait    wish     undertake

  举例:

  the driver failed to see the other car in time.

  司机没能及时看见另一辆车。

  i happen to know the answer to your question.

  我碰巧知道你那道问题的答案。

  2)动词+不定式 ; 动词+宾语+不定式

  ask, beg, choose, expect , hate, help intend like, love, need prefer, prepare, promise, want, wish…

  i like to keep everything tidy. 我喜欢每件东西都保持整洁。

  i like you to keep everything tidy. 我喜欢你年使每件东西都保持整洁。

  i want to speak to tom.  我想和汤姆谈话。

  i want you to speak to tom.  我想让你和汤姆谈话。

  3) 动词+疑问词+ to

  decide, know, consider forget, learn, remember, show, understand, see, wonder, hear, find out, explain, tell

  please show us how to do that. 请演示给我们如何去做。

  there are so many kinds of tape-recorders on sale that i can‘t make up my mind which to buy.有这么多的录音机,我都拿不定主意买哪一种。

  注意:疑问词带不定式在句中作成分时,谓语动词用单数。

  the question is how to put it into practice.

  问题是怎样把它付诸实施。

  2 不定式作补语

  1) 动词+宾语+不定式(to do)

  advise    allow   appoint   believe   cause   challenge command  compel   consider  declare   drive   enable  encourage  find    forbid   force   guess   hire    imagine  impel   induce   inform  instruct  invite   judge    know    like   order    permit  persuade  remind   report  request   require  select send    state   suppose   tell    think  train   trust   understand urge    warn

  例句:

  a. father will not allow us to play on the street.

  父亲不让我们在街上玩耍。

  b. we believe him to be guilty.

  我们相信他是有罪的。

  find 的特殊用法:

  find 后可用分词做宾补,或先加形式宾语,再加形容词,最后加带to 的动词不定式。find后也可带一个从句。此类动词还有get,have.

  i found him lying on the ground.

  i found it important to learn.

  i found that to learn english is important.

  典型例题:

  the next morning she found the man ___ in bed,dead.

  a. lying  b. lie  c. lay  d. laying

  答案:a.find的宾语后面,用分词或分词短语,起宾语补足语作用。现在分词表达主动,也表达正在进行,过去分词表达被动。

  2) to + be 的不定式结构,作补语的动词。

  acknowledge,   believe, consider,  think, declare(声称), discover, fancy(设想), feel   find, guess,  judge,  imagine,   know,  prove,     see(理解), show,    suppose,     take(以为),   understand

  we consider tom to be one of the best students in our class.

  我们认为汤姆是班上最好的学生之一。

  典型例题

  charles babbage is generally considered ___ the first computer.

  a. to invent b. inventing  c. to have invented  d. having invented

  答案:a. 由consider to do sth. 排除b、d.。 此句只说明发明这一个事实,不定式后用原形即可。而c为现在完成时,发明为点动词一般不用完成时,且此处也不强调对现在的影响,因此不选c.

  3) to be +形容词

  seem,      appear,   be said,  be supposed,  be believed, be thought, be known,  be reported, hope, wish,  desire,   want,    plan,  expect,    mean…

  the book is believed to be uninteresting.

  人们认为这本书没什么意思。

  4) there be+不定式

  believe, expect, intend, like, love, mean, prefer, want, wish, undrstand

  we didn‘t expect there to be so many people there.我们没料到会有那么多人在哪里。

  注意 : 有些动词需用as 短语做补语,如regard, think believe, take, consider.

  we regard tom as our best teacher. 我们认为汤姆是我们最好的老师。

  mary took him as her father . 玛丽把他当作自己的父亲

 


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