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2011年1月现代语言学自考试题

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全国2011年1月自考
现代语言学试题
课程代码:00830


I . Directions: Read each of the following statements carefully. Decide which one of the four choices best completes the statement and put the letter A, B, C, or D in the brackets. (2% 10=20% )
1.There is a difference between what we know, which is our linguistic competence, and how we use this knowledge in actual speech production and______, which is our linguistic performance. (      )
A. creation  B. communication
C. comprehension  D. perception
2.The sounds that begin and end the words church and judge are voiceless and voiced ______,respectively. (      )
A. affricates  B. stops
C. velars  D. palatals
3.Morphemes which represent such grammatical categories as number, tense, gender, and case are called _______ morphemes. (      )
A. free  B. bound
C. derivational  D. inflectional
4.XP may contain more than just X. Phrases that are formed of more than one word usually contain head, ______and complement. (      )
A. modifier  B. determiner
C. qualifier  D. specifier
5. ______ is concerned with the inherent meaning of the linguistic form while _______ deals with the relationship between the linguistic element and non-linguistic world of experience. (      )
A. Reference, sense  B. Sense, referent
C. Sense, reference  D. Referent, sense
6. According to John Austin’s theory of speech act, a(n) ______ act is the act of expressing the speaker’s intention. (      )
 A. prelocutionary  B. locutionary
C. illocutionary  D. perlocutionary
7. Sound changes may include the loss of a sound or sounds. The so-called apocope refers to the omission of a vowel segment________. (      )
A. in word-initial  B. in word-middle
C. in word-final  D. in syllable-initial
8. In contrast to Standard American English, Black English is the distinct variety of English native to black populations in the USA. We regard Black English as________. (      )
A. a regional dialect  B. a social dialect
C. a situational dialect  D. an ethnic dialect
9. Among the language centers, ______is responsible for physical articulation of utterances. (      )
 A. the motor area  B. Broca’s area
C. Wernicke’s area  D. the angular gyrus
10. The language at ________ stage begins to reflect the distinction between sentence-types, such as negative sentences, imperatives, and questions. (      )
A. prelinguistic  B. one-word
C. two-word  D. multiword

II. Directions: Fill in the blank in each of the following statements with one word, the first letter of which is already given as a clue. Note that you are to fill in ONE word only, and you are not allowed to change the letter given. ( 1%10=10% )
11. A           is one of the defining properties of human language, which means there is in general no natural relation between meanings and sounds.
12. Among the three branches of phonetics, the study of the physical properties of the streams of sounds produced in speech is known as a          phonetics.
13. In using the morphological rules, we must guard against o          in that different words may require different affixes to create the same meaning change.
14. Universal Grammar is a set of principles and p           of grammar which, according to Chomsky, is inherited genetically by all human beings.
15. The synonyms such as economical, thrifty, and stingy are different in their e      meaning.
16. Most of the violations of the four maxims under the Cooperative Principle give rise to conversational i        .
17. When there is a need to reduce ambiguity and increase communicative clarity or expressiveness, then rule e         occurs.
18. A pidgin is a m          language developed as a medium of trade, or through other extended but limited contact, between groups of speakers who have no other language in common.
19. The localization of cognitive and perceptual functions in a particular hemisphere of the brain is called 1        .
20. Language acquisition is concerned with language development in humans. Generally speaking, it refers to children’s development of their f          language.

III. Directions: Judge whether each of the following statements is true or false. Put a T for true or F for false in the brackets in front of each statement. If you think a statement is false, you must explain why you think so. ( 2% 10=20% )
21. (      ) “There’s a motorcycle coming" is seen as, out of context, a statement that a motorcycle is coming. But in a particular context, it might be a warning to a pedestrian not to step onto a road. When the study of meaning is considered in the context of use, it becomes a branch of linguistics called pragmatics.
22.(      )To distinguish between phonemes and phones,linguists use slashes//for phonetic segments and square brackets [  ] for phonemic segments.
23. (      )Prefixes modify the meaning of the stem and also change the part of speech of the original word.
24. (      )In addition to sentences and clauses,a syntactic category usually refers to a 1exical category or a phrasal category that performs a particular grammatical function.
25. (      )The word“flower”and “flour”,which are identical in sound,but different in spelling and meaning,are homophones.
26.(      )As the process of communication is essentially a process of conveying meaning in a certain context,pragmatics can be regarded as a kind of meaning study.
27. (      )The meaning representation of words may change,becoming broader, narrower, or shifted.The word knight once meant “youth”,but was elevated in meaning in the age of chivalry;When Juliet tells Romeo,“I’m too fond.” She is not claiming she likes Romeo too much.She means “I am too foolish.”These are two examples of semantic broadening.
28. (      ) In sociolinguistics,speech community refers to a group of speakers who constitute a community and share the same language or a particular variety of language.Speakers of  English in general might be treated as such a community.
29. (      )Generally speaking,the left hemisphere of the brain controls voluntary movements of, and responds to signals from,the right side of the body.
30.(      )The optimum age for SLA always accords with the maxim of’ “the younger the better”.

IV. Directions: Explanin the following terms and give examples for illustration where appropriate. (3% 10=30% )
31.displacement
32.voicing
33.morpheme
34.finite clause
35.componential analysis
36.declarations
37.epenthesis
38.speech variety
39.linguistic relativism
40.the nativist view of language acquisition

V. Directions: Answer the following questions.
(10% 2=20% )
41. What is the distinction between langue and parole? Why did Saussure make such a distinction?
42. What are the differences between sentence meaning and utterance meaning? And give examples to illustrate them.


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